H. Pylori Infection – Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatments

1What Is H. Pylori Bacteria?

Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) has coexisted with humans for hundreds of years, and it is a type of bacteria most often found in the linings of the stomach and duodenum. The helical bacterium can cause H. pylori infection, one of the most common infections affecting nearly two-thirds of the population in the world. On Dec 21, 2021, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) published the 15th report on carcinogens, adding the chronic infection with H. Pylori as a known human carcinogen.

Many people are wondering how this bacterium reproduces in a highly acidic stomach since it can be eliminated in hydrochloric acid solutions. In fact, H. Pylori bacterium will secrete urease (an enzyme) to produce ammonia, which is a substance that helps neutralize acidity in the stomach and creates a more hospitable condition for H. Pylori bacterium to live and grow. What’s more, H. Pylori bacterium also makes its way to less acidic locations like the mucus layers, lumen, and the inner lining of the stomach to survive in a harsh environment, thanks to its spiral shape and flagella. [1]


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